Saturday, December 22, 2012 – The Afghanistan which kept bleeding in the deadliest civil war in earlier 90’s and then again in the present era, proved to be very fatal for the Pakistan. War on terror not only altered the ground situation of Afghanistan but also kept Pakistan in chaos. After declaring war on terror the USA found Pakistan as its close ally in the region. Pakistan’s involvement was its unavoidable compulsion besides its first and the last choice. Otherwise such a nuclear state would have been a second line victim. Despite providing support to the USA, Pakistan lost almost 50000 people in its own land. The well moving economy remained stagnant, faced intra provincial disparities, energy shortage etc. After almost a decade, Pakistan now regards USA as one of the major causes of the problem in its neighborhood and indeed within Pakistan. Instability in Afghanistan remained always a concern and head ache for the Pakistan because the internal and external policies got affected. The upcoming event, withdrawal of USA and NATO forces from Afghanistan in 2014 or much earlier as demand arises, will certainly involve the whole south Asian region in the intricacies, because many states are positioning themselves to attain their national interests. They want to fill the vacuum which will be left behind by the USA and its allies. It is not clear yet that how and up to what extent these regional actors will influence the future of Afghanistan. Conflict itself indicates that six nations other than US and its allies will get themselves engaged in the post withdrawal period and they are Pakistan, India, Iran, China, Saudi Arabia and Russia. By mentioning their hidden agenda and national interests, it will be easier to predict the fate of Afghanistan and the south Asian region. India is on its way to Afghanistan with a clear motto that (i) It has to prevent Afghanistan from becoming a heaven of terrorists. (ii) To counter the Pakistani influence in Afghanistan. (iii) Access to the raw material of Afghanistan for its own needs. (iv) Ending the use of militant outfits by Pakistan. (v) It will get engaged with the nationalist insurgency in Balochistan and (vii) definitely India will seek a reach to Gilgit Baltistan. Pakistan’s policy will be against the Indian interests without any doubt, because the stability of later depends upon the implementation of the policies of the former. Despite this Pakistan has to save its own interests and maintain its stability. China has to enter with its interests and they may be access to Afghanistan’s raw materials, seek and provide a soft challenge to India, emerge as a power and to get rid of the US presence. Iran needs to work for the decrease in the US forces in Afghanistan, its main interests may be to counter the Taliban influence, expanding its economic ties with Afghanistan and India, safe borders with Pakistan, create close ties with Afghan government and to create a stable image in Afghanistan. Russia has to work for the maintenance of functional government in Afghanistan. It may create an environment to counter the US’s economic efforts in Afghanistan, avoiding long term presence of US in Afghanistan which may be a threat to its socialism and to breed the elements which were its obedient in the past. Saudi Arabia being a Muslim nation and a close ally of the USA, will work to promote itself as a unifier of Sunni community, avoiding Iran’s interference in Afghanistan’s affairs, mainly to maintain a status quo in the ongoing situation and to keep the relation with Pakistan as it is. These all national interests of these six nations along with others will predict the fate of Afghanistan and south Asia as their involvement with their agendas may pose a threat to the regional stability, which is already on the powder keg. Ones interests are the concerns of other. India’s entrance with its interests may make its rivals (Pakistan and China) angry, because its all objectives contain some stiff elements for them. Its prime rival (Pakistan) will notice and feel the unavoidable threat, because Indian presence in may dilute its relations with Afghanistan.
Writing a Bibliography :APA Format
Below are standard formats and examples for basic bibliographic information recommended by the American Psychological Association (APA). For more information on the APA format, see http://www.apastyle.org.
Your list of works cited should begin at the end of the paper on a new page with the centered title, References. Alphabetize the entries in your list by the author’s last name, using the letter-by-letter system (ignore spaces and other punctuation.) Only the initials of the first and middle names are given. If the author’s name is unknown, alphabetize by the title, ignoring any A, An, or The.
For dates, spell out the names of months in the text of your paper, but abbreviate them in the list of works cited, except for May, June, and July. Use either the day-month-year style (22 July 1999) or the month-day-year style (July 22, 1999) and be consistent. With the month-day-year style, be sure to add a comma after the year unless another punctuation mark goes there.
Underlining or Italics?
When reports were written on typewriters, the names of publications were underlined because most typewriters had no way to print italics. If you write a bibliography by hand, you should still underline the names of publications. But, if you use a computer, then publication names should be in italics as they are below. Always check with your instructor regarding their preference of using italics or underlining. Our examples use italics.
All APA citations should use hanging indents, that is, the first line of an entry should be flush left, and the second and subsequent lines should be indented 1/2″.
Capitalization, Abbreviation, and Punctuation
The APA guidelines specify using sentence-style capitalization for the titles of books or articles, so you should capitalize only the first word of a title and subtitle. The exceptions to this rule would be periodical titles and proper names in a title which should still be capitalized. The periodical title is run in title case, and is followed by the volume number which, with the title, is also italicized.
If there is more than one author, use an ampersand (&) before the name of the last author. If there are more than six authors, list only the first one and use et al. for the rest.
Place the date of publication in parentheses immediately after the name of the author. Place a period after the closing parenthesis. Do not italicize, underline, or put quotes around the titles of shorter works within longer works.
Author’s last name, first initial. (Publication date). Book title. Additional information. City of publication: Publishing company.
Allen, T. (1974). Vanishing wildlife of North America. Washington, D.C.: National Geographic Society.
Boorstin, D. (1992). The creators: A history of the heroes of the imagination. New York: Random House.
Nicol, A. M., & Pexman, P. M. (1999). Presenting your findings: A practical guide for creating tables. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
Searles, B., & Last, M. (1979). A reader’s guide to science fiction. New York: Facts on File, Inc.
Toomer, J. (1988). Cane. Ed. Darwin T. Turner. New York: Norton.
Encyclopedia & Dictionary
Author’s last name, first initial. (Date). Title of Article. Title of Encyclopedia (Volume, pages). City of publication: Publishing company.
Bergmann, P. G. (1993). Relativity. In The new encyclopedia britannica (Vol. 26, pp. 501-508). Chicago: Encyclopedia Britannica.
Merriam-Webster’s collegiate dictionary (10th ed.). (1993). Springfield, MA: Merriam-Webster.
Pettingill, O. S., Jr. (1980). Falcon and Falconry. World book encyclopedia. (pp. 150-155). Chicago: World Book.
Tobias, R. (1991). Thurber, James. Encyclopedia americana. (p. 600). New York: Scholastic Library Publishing.
Magazine & Newspaper Articles
Author’s last name, first initial. (Publication date). Article title. Periodical title, volume number(issue number if available), inclusive pages.
Note: Do not enclose the title in quotation marks. Put a period after the title. If a periodical includes a volume number, italicize it and then give the page range (in regular type) without “pp.” If the periodical does not use volume numbers, as in newspapers, use p. or pp. for page numbers.
Note: Unlike other periodicals, p. or pp. precedes page numbers for a newspaper reference in APA style.
Harlow, H. F. (1983). Fundamentals for preparing psychology journal articles. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 55, 893-896.
Henry, W. A., III. (1990, April 9). Making the grade in today’s schools. Time, 135, 28-31.
Kalette, D. (1986, July 21). California town counts town to big quake. USA Today, 9, p. A1.
Kanfer, S. (1986, July 21). Heard any good books lately? Time, 113, 71-72.
Trillin, C. (1993, February 15). Culture shopping. New Yorker, pp. 48-51.
Website or Webpage
Author’s name. (Date of publication). Title of article. Title of Periodical, volume number, Retrieved month day, year, from full URL
Author’s name. (Date of publication). Title of work. Retrieved month day, year, from full URL
Note: When citing Internet sources, refer to the specific website document. If a document is undated, use “n.d.” (for no date) immediately after the document title. Break a lengthy URL that goes to another line after a slash or before a period. Continually check your references to online documents. There is no period following a URL.
Note: If you cannot find some of this information, cite what is available.
Devitt, T. (2001, August 2). Lightning injures four at music festival. The Why? Files. Retrieved January 23, 2002, from http://whyfiles.org/137lightning/index.html
Dove, R. (1998). Lady freedom among us. The Electronic Text Center. Retrieved June 19, 1998, from Alderman Library, University of Virginia website: http://etext.lib.virginia.edu/subjects/afam.html
Note: If a document is contained within a large and complex website (such as that for a university or a government agency), identify the host organization and the relevant program or department before giving the URL for the document itself. Precede the URL with a colon.
Fredrickson, B. L. (2000, March 7). Cultivating positive emotions to optimize health and well-being. Prevention & Treatment, 3, Article 0001a. Retrieved November 20, 2000, from http://journals.apa.org/prevention/volume3/pre0030001a.html
GVU’s 8th WWW user survey. (n.d.). Retrieved August 8, 2000, from http://www.cc.gatech.edu/gvu/usersurveys/survey1997-10/
Health Canada. (2002, February). The safety of genetically modified food crops. Retrieved March 22, 2005, from http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/english/protection/biologics_genetics/gen_mod_foods/genmodebk.html
Hilts, P. J. (1999, February 16). In forecasting their emotions, most people flunk out. New York Times. Retrieved November 21, 2000, from http://www.nytimes.com
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